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[Daily article] August 31: Amazing Grace



"Amazing Grace" is a Christian hymn written by English poet and
clergyman John Newton (pictured) and published in 1779. Based on
Newton's personal experiences at sea (in the Royal Navy and the slave
trade), it was originally written in 1773 and published in Newton and
Cowper's Olney Hymns in 1779. Although it became relatively obscure in
England, in the United States it was commonly used during the Second
Great Awakening. The original tune, if any, is unknown, but it is now
most commonly sung to the tune "New Britain". It conveys a message that
forgiveness and redemption are possible regardless of the sins people
commit, and that the soul can be delivered from despair through the
mercy of God. One of the most recognizable songs in the English-speaking
world, it has been called "the most famous of all the folk hymns",
having been recorded thousands of times during the 20th century and
becoming emblematic in African American spiritual music.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazing_Grace>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1798:

Irish Rebellion of 1798: Irish rebels, with French assistance,
established the short-lived Republic of Connaught.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Connaught>

1813:

Peninsular War: At the Battle of San Marcial, the Spanish Army
of Galicia under Manuel Alberto Freire turned back Nicolas Soult's last
major offensive against Arthur Wellesley's allied army.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Marcial>

1939:

Nazi forces, posing as Poles, staged an attack against the
German radio station Sender Gleiwitz in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia,
Germany, creating an excuse to invade Poland the next day.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gleiwitz_incident>

1965:

The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy (pictured), a large, wide-
bodied cargo aircraft used for ferrying outsized cargo components, made
its first flight.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aero_Spacelines_Super_Guppy>

1998:

North Korea claimed to have successfully launched
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1, its first satellite, although no objects were ever
tracked in orbit from the launch.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwangmy%C5%8Fngs%C5%8Fng-1>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

kore:
An Ancient Greek statue of a woman, portrayed standing, usually clothed,
painted in bright colours and having an elaborate hairstyle.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kore>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

I was never interested in the obvious, or in the details one takes for
granted, and everybody seemed to be addicted to the obvious, being
astonished by it, and forever harping about the details which I had long
ago weighted, measured, and discarded as irrelevant and useless. If you
can measure it, don't. If you can weigh it, it isn't worth the bother.
It isn't what you're after. It isn't going to get it. My wisdom was
visual and as swift as vision. I looked, I saw, I understood, I felt,
"That's that, where do we go from here?"
--William Saroyan
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/William_Saroyan>

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[Daily article] August 30: Simon B. Buckner



Simon Bolivar Buckner (1823–1914) was a soldier in the
Mexican–American War and a Confederate lieutenant general in the
American Civil War. He graduated from West Point and taught there for
five years, with an interlude during the Mexican–American War. He left
the army in 1855 to manage real estate he inherited in Chicago. In 1857,
he returned to his native state (Kentucky) and was appointed adjutant
general by Governor Beriah Magoffin. He attempted to enforce Kentucky's
neutrality policy during the early days of the Civil War, but enlisted
in the Confederate Army in September 1861. He was the first Confederate
general to surrender an army, doing so at the Battle of Fort Donelson in
1862. He also participated in Braxton Bragg's failed attempt to invade
Kentucky. On August 30, 1887, he was inaugurated governor of Kentucky.
As governor, he worked to suppress the Hatfield-McCoy feud and the Rowan
County War and ordered an audit that prompted state treasurer James W.
Tate to abscond with $250,000 from the state treasury. He unsuccessfully
sought a seat in the U.S. Senate in 1895 and the U.S. Vice-Presidency in
1896.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_B._Buckner>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1799:

Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland: A squadron of the navy of
the Batavian Republic surrendered to the Royal Navy without a fight near
Wieringen.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlieter_Incident>

1836:

Real estate entrepreneurs John Kirby Allen and Augustus Chapman
Allen founded the city of Houston on land near the banks of Buffalo
Bayou in present-day Texas.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston>

1896:

Philippine Revolution: In the Battle of San Juan del Monte, the
first real battle of the war, a Katipunan force temporarily captured a
powder magazine before being beaten back by a Spanish garrison.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_San_Juan_del_Monte>

1942:

Second World War: Erwin Rommel launched the last major Axis
offensive of the Western Desert Campaign, attacking the British Eighth
Army position near El Alamein, Egypt.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Alam_el_Halfa>

1984:

Space Shuttle Discovery took off on its maiden voyage.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Shuttle_Discovery>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

leech:
1. (transitive) To apply a leech medicinally, so that it sucks blood from
the patient.
2. (transitive) To drain (resources) without giving back.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/leech>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

My heart was fashioned to be susceptible of love and sympathy, and when
wrenched by misery to vice and hatred, it did not endure the violence of
the change without torture such as you cannot even imagine.
--Mary Shelley
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Mary_Shelley>

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[Daily article] August 29: History of Michigan State University



The history of Michigan State University (MSU) dates to 1855, when the
Michigan Legislature established the Agricultural College of the State
of Michigan. As the first agricultural college in the United States, the
school served as a prototype for future Land Grant institutions under
the Morrill Act. The school's first class graduated in 1861. That same
year, the Michigan Legislature approved a plan to allow the school to
adopt a four-year curriculum and grant degrees comparable to those of
rival University of Michigan. In 1870, the College became co-educational
and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture into a broad array of
coursework commencing with home economics for women students. The school
established "Farmers' Institutes" as a means of reaching out to the
state's agricultural community; the program gradually became the MSU
Extension Services. After World War II, the college gained admission to
the Big Ten Conference and grew to become one of the largest educational
institutions in the United States. In its centennial year of 1955, the
state officially made the school a university and the current name was
adopted in 1964 after Michigan voters adopted a new constitution.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Michigan_State_University>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1533:

Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire: Conquistador Francisco
Pizarro executed the last independent Inca Emperor Atahualpa in
Cajamarca.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atahualpa>

1786:

Led by Daniel Shays, disgruntled farmers in Western
Massachusetts, US, angered by high tax burdens and disenfranchisement,
started Shays' Rebellion.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shays%27_Rebellion>

1831:

Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, leading
to the formation of Faraday's law of induction.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faraday%27s_law_of_induction>

1916:

The United States Congress passed the Philippine Autonomy Act,
the first formal and official declaration of the US commitment to grant
independence to the Philippines.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jones_Law_(Philippines)>

1949:

The Soviet Union successfully conducted its first nuclear
weapons test, exploding the 22-kiloton RDS-1.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RDS-1>

1991:

Italian businessman Libero Grassi was killed by the Sicilian
Mafia after taking a public stand against their extortion demands.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libero_Grassi>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

skyclad:
(Wicca) Naked outdoors.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/skyclad>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

An act of goodness is of itself an act of happiness. No reward coming
after the event can compare with the sweet reward that went with it.
--Maurice Maeterlinck
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Maurice_Maeterlinck>

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[Daily article] August 28: John Martin Scripps



John Martin Scripps (1959–1996) was a British spree killer who
murdered three tourists—Gerard Lowe in Singapore, and Sheila and Darin
Damude in Thailand—with another three unconfirmed victims. He posed as
a tourist himself when committing the murders, for which British
tabloids nickname him "the tourist from Hell". He would stay in the same
hotels as his victims in a room near theirs. Once he had an excuse to be
in their rooms, he would use an electroshock weapon to immobilise them
before killing them. Martin was arrested in Singapore when he returned
there after murdering the Damudes. Photographs of decomposed body parts
were shown as evidence during his trial, making it "one of the most
grisly" ever heard in Singapore. He defended himself by saying that
Lowe's death had been an accident and that a friend of his had killed
the Damudes. The judge did not believe Martin's account of events and
sentenced him to death by hanging, making him the first Briton in
Singapore since Singapore's independence to be given the death penalty.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Martin_Scripps>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1789:

With the first use of his new 1.2 m (3.9 ft) telescope, then
the largest in the world, William Herschel discovered a new moon of
Saturn, which was later named Enceladus.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus_(moon)>

1845:

The first issue of the popular science magazine Scientific
American (cover pictured) was published, currently the oldest
continuously published magazine in the United States.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_American>

1901:

Silliman University in Dumaguete, Negros Oriental, Philippines,
became the first American private school to be founded in the country.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silliman_University>

1909:

A military coup d'etat against the government of Dimitrios
Rallis began in the Goudi neighbourhood of Athens, Greece.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goudi_coup>

1955:

African American teenager Emmett Till was murdered near Money,
Mississippi, for flirting with a white woman, energizing the nascent
American Civil Rights Movement.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmett_Till>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

battle of the sexes:
(game theory) A situation in which two people want to do different
things, but do them together.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/battle_of_the_sexes>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

The best among our writers are doing their accustomed work of mirroring
what is deep in the spirit of our time; if chaos appears in those
mirrors, we must have faith that in the future, as always in the past,
that chaos will slowly reveal itself as a new aspect of order.
--Robertson Davies
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Robertson_Davies>

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[Daily article] August 27: Gobrecht dollar



The Gobrecht dollar, minted from 1836 to 1839, was the first silver
dollar struck for circulation by the United States Mint after production
of that denomination was officially halted in 1806. In 1835, Director of
the United States Mint Robert M. Patterson began an attempt to redesign
the nation's coinage. Christian Gobrecht was hired as an engraver. On
August 1, Patterson wrote a letter to Philadelphia artist Thomas Sully
laying out his plans for the dollar coin. He also asked Titian Peale to
create a design for the coin. Sully created an obverse design depicting
a seated representation of Liberty and Peale a reverse depicting a
soaring bald eagle. After the designs were created and trials struck,
production of the working dies began in September 1836. After a small
quantity was struck for circulation, the Mint received complaints
regarding the prominent placement of Gobrecht's name on the dollar, and
the design was modified to incorporate his name in a less conspicuous
position. In January 1837, the legal standard for the percentage of
precious metal in silver coins was changed from 89.2% to 90%, and the
Gobrecht dollars struck after that point reflect this change. In total,
1,900 Gobrecht dollars were struck during the official production run.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gobrecht_dollar>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1832:

Black Hawk (pictured), leader of the Sauk tribe of Native
Americans, surrendered to U.S. authorities, ending the Black Hawk War.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Hawk_War>

1927:

Five Canadian women filed a petition to ask the Supreme Court
of Canada, "Does the word 'Persons' in Section 24 of the British North
America Act, 1867, include female persons," to which the court
eventually replied that it does not.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Famous_Five_(Canada)>

1957:

The Constitution of Malaya came into force, three days before
the Federation of Malaya achieved formal independence from the United
Kingdom.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Malaysia>

1979:

In two separate attacks, IRA bombs killed 18 British soldiers
near Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland, and British admiral Louis
Mountbatten and three others in County Sligo, Ireland.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Mountbatten,_1st_Earl_Mountbatten_of_Burma>

2003:

The planet Mars made its closest approach to Earth in nearly
60,000 years: 55,758,006 kilometres (34,646,419 mi).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars>

2003:

The first round of six-party talks to find a peaceful
resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean
nuclear weapons program opened.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Six-party_talks>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

anglicism:
A word or other feature originating in the English language that has
been borrowed by another language.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/anglicism>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

It is easier to discover a deficiency in individuals, in states, and in
providence, than to see their real import or value.
--Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel>

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[Daily article] August 26: Battle of Milne Bay



The Battle of Milne Bay, also known as Operation RE by the Japanese, was
a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II from 25 August to 7
September 1942. Japanese naval troops, known as Kaigun Rikusentai,
attacked the Allied airfields at Milne Bay that had been established on
the eastern tip of New Guinea. The Japanese miscalculated the size of
the garrison and initially landed a force roughly equivalent in size to
one battalion on 25 August. Meanwhile the Allies, forewarned by
intelligence from Ultra, had heavily reinforced the garrison. Despite
suffering a significant setback at the outset, when part of the invasion
force had its landing craft destroyed by Allied aircraft as they
attempted to land on the coast behind the Australian defenders, the
Japanese quickly pushed inland and began their advance towards the
airfields. Heavy fighting followed as they came up against Australian
Militia and the veteran Second Australian Imperial Force units. Allied
air superiority helped tip the balance. Finding themselves outnumbered,
lacking supplies and suffering heavy casualties, the Japanese were
compelled to withdraw their forces. The battle is considered to be the
first in the Pacific campaign in which Allied troops decisively defeated
Japanese land forces.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Milne_Bay>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1346:

Hundred Years' War: English forces established the military
supremacy of the English longbow over the French combination of crossbow
and armoured knights at the Battle of Crécy.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cr%C3%A9cy>

1748:

The first Lutheran denomination in North America, the
Pennsylvania Ministerium, was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania_Ministerium>

1810:

Juan José Castelli ordered the execution of Santiago de
Liniers, during the Argentine War of Independence.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santiago_de_Liniers,_1st_Count_of_Buenos_Aires>

1883:

The largest explosion in human history took place when an
eruption destroyed the volcanic island of Krakatoa (pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1883_eruption_of_Krakatoa>

1968:

The U.S. Democratic Party's National Convention began at the
International Amphitheatre in Chicago, sparking four days of clashes
between anti–Vietnam War protesters and police.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1968_Democratic_National_Convention>

1977:

The National Assembly of Quebec declared French to be the only
official language of Quebec.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charter_of_the_French_Language>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

paradigm shift:
A radical change in thinking from an accepted point of view to a new
one, necessitated when new scientific discoveries produce anomalies in
the current paradigm.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/paradigm_shift>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

The true definition of a snob is one who craves for what separates men
rather than for what unites them.
--John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/John_Buchan,_1st_Baron_Tweedsmuir>

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[Daily article] August 25: Herne Hill railway station



Herne Hill railway station is a passenger railway station in Lambeth,
South London. Opened on 25 August 1862 by the London, Chatham and Dover
Railway, the station was an important interchange for passengers
travelling between London and continental Europe for many decades;
direct rail services were available to the Kent coast and London
Victoria, the City of London and King's Cross. The arrival of the
railways transformed Herne Hill from a wealthy suburb with large
residential estates into a densely populated urban area; the number of
residents increased five-fold in the decade after the station's
opening as workers took advantage of the fast and cheap trains to
central London (some services cost as little as a penny per journey).
Today, the station is served by two commuter routes and used by more
than 2.6 million passengers a year. The original building, which is
still in use, has been praised for its architectural quality and was
Grade II listed in 1998.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herne_Hill_railway_station>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1248:

Ommen in the Netherlands received city rights and fortification
rights from Otto III, the Archbishop of Utrecht, after the town was
pillaged at least twice by a local robber baron.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ommen>

1580:

War of the Portuguese Succession: The army of the pretender to
the Portuguese throne, António, Prior of Crato (pictured), was routed
in the Battle of Alcântara, ending his short-lived reign.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Alc%C3%A2ntara_(1580)>

1939:

The United Kingdom and Poland entered into a military alliance
for mutual assistance in case of military invasion by "a European
Power".
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Polish_military_alliance>

1942:

Second World War: Japanese forces attacked the Australian base
at Milne Bay on the eastern tip of New Guinea.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Milne_Bay>

1945:

Armed supporters of the Communist Party of China killed
American military intelligence officer and Baptist missionary John Birch
as he was leading a mission to reach Allied personnel in a Japanese
prison camp.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Birch_(missionary)>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

draculin:
(organic chemistry) A glycoprotein with anticoagulant properties, found
in the saliva of vampire bats.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/draculin>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

Whate'er of us lives in the hearts of others Is our truest and
profoundest self.
--Johann Gottfried Herder
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Johann_Gottfried_Herder>

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[Daily article] August 24: Aiphanes



Aiphanes is a genus of spiny palms which is native to tropical regions
of South and Central America and the Caribbean. There are about 26
species in the genus, ranging in size from understorey shrubs with
subterranean stems to subcanopy trees as tall as 20 metres (66 ft).
Most have pinnately compound leaves (leaves which are divided into
leaflets arranged feather-like, in pairs along a central axis); one
species has entire leaves. Stems, leaves and sometimes even the fruit
are covered with spines. Plants flower repeatedly over the course of
their lifespan and have separate male and female flowers, although these
are borne together on the same inflorescence. Although records of
pollinators are limited, most species appear to be pollinated by
insects. The fruit are eaten by several birds and mammals, including at
least two species of Amazon parrots.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aiphanes>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

49 BC:

Caesar's Civil War: Forces loyal to Julius Caesar led by Gaius
Scribonius Curio were crushingly defeated by Pompeian Republicans under
Publius Attius Varus and King Juba I of Numidia.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Bagradas_River_(49_BC)>

1456:

The oldest known version of the Gutenberg Bible, the first
major book produced on a printing press, was completed.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gutenberg_Bible>

1821:

The Treaty of Córdoba was signed in Córdoba, Veracruz,
ratifying the Plan of Iguala and concluding Mexico's War of Independence
from Spain.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican_War_of_Independence>

1942:

World War II: Bombers from the United States aircraft carrier
Saratoga sank the Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō near Santa Isabel,
Solomon Islands, helping to lead to an Allied victory.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Eastern_Solomons>

1992:

Hurricane Andrew made landfall in South Florida, the third most
powerful Category 5 system to hit the United States during the 20th
century.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Andrew>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

provident:
With care and consideration for the future; foresightly.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/provident>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

One thinker no less brilliant than the heresiarch himself, but in the
orthodox tradition, advanced a most daring hypothesis. This felicitous
supposition declared that there is only one Individual, and that this
indivisible Individual is every one of the separate beings in the
universe, and that those beings are the instruments and masks of
divinity itself.
--Jorge Luis Borges
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Jorge_Luis_Borges>

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[Daily article] August 23: Olmec colossal heads



The Olmec colossal heads consist of at least seventeen monumental stone
representations of human male heads sculpted from large basalt boulders.
The heads date from at least before 900 BC and are a distinctive feature
of the Olmec civilization of ancient Mesoamerica. All portray mature men
with fleshy cheeks, flat noses and slightly crossed eyes; their physical
characteristics correspond to a type that is still common among the
inhabitants of Tabasco and Veracruz. The boulders were brought from the
Sierra de los Tuxtlas mountains of Veracruz; given that the extremely
large slabs of stone used in their production were transported over
large distances, presumably involving a great deal of people and
resources, it is thought that finished monuments represent portraits of
powerful individual Olmec rulers; each is given a distinctive headdress.
The heads were variously arranged in lines or groups at major Olmec
centres, but the method and logistics used to transport the stone to
these sites remain unclear. The discovery of a colossal head at Tres
Zapotes in the 19th century spurred the first archaeological
investigations of Olmec culture by Matthew Stirling in 1938. Dating the
monuments remains difficult due to the movement of many from their
original context prior to archaeological investigation. Most have been
dated to the Early Preclassic period (1500–1000 BC) with some to the
Middle Preclassic (1000–400 BC) period.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olmec_colossal_heads>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1305:

After a show trial, William Wallace (pictured), leader of the
Scottish resistance against England during the Wars of Scottish
Independence, was executed in London's Smithfield Market.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wallace>

1572:

The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, a wave of Catholic mob
violence against the Huguenots, began, lasting for several months and
resulting in an estimated tens of thousands deaths across France.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Bartholomew%27s_Day_massacre>

1839:

As it prepared for war against China's Qing Dynasty, an ensuing
conflict that became known as the First Opium War, Britain captured the
port of Hong Kong.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Opium_War>

1943:

World War II: The decisive Soviet victory in the Battle of
Kursk gave the Red Army the strategic initiative for the rest of the
war.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Kursk>

2006:

Natascha Kampusch, who had been abducted at the age of 10 in
Vienna, escaped from her captor Wolfgang Priklopil after eight years in
captivity.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natascha_Kampusch>

2007:

The skeletal remains of Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of
Russia, and his sister Anastasia were found near Yekaterinburg, Russia.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchess_Anastasia_Nikolaevna_of_Russia>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

malleate:
To beat into shape with a hammer.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/malleate>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

It is a paradoxical but profoundly true and important principle of life
that the most likely way to reach a goal is to be aiming not at that
goal itself but at some more ambitious goal beyond it.
--Arnold Toynbee
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Arnold_Toynbee>

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[Daily article] August 22: Battle of Bosworth Field



The Battle of Bosworth Field was the last significant battle of the Wars
of the Roses, the civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House
of York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th
century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the
Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, became the
first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty by his victory and subsequent
marriage to a Yorkist princess. His opponent Richard III, the last king
of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider
Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, making it one
of the defining moments of English history. Richard's reign began in
1483 when he seized the throne from his twelve-year-old nephew
Edward V; the boy and his younger brother soon disappeared. Meanwhile,
Henry Tudor, a descendant of the House of Lancaster, also laid claim to
the throne. Henry's first attempt to invade England in 1483 was
frustrated by a storm, but his second arrived unopposed on 1 August
1485 on the southwest coast of Wales. Marching inland, Henry gathered
support as he made for London. Richard hurriedly mustered his troops and
intercepted Henry's army south of the town of Market Bosworth in
Leicestershire.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bosworth_Field>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1639:

The East India Company bought a small strip of land on what is
today Chennai, the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, from
the King of the Vijayanagara Empire, Peda Venkata Raya.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chennai>

1777:

American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold used a devious ruse
to convince the British that a much larger force was arriving, causing
them to abandon the Siege of Fort Stanwix (reconstructed fort pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Fort_Stanwix>

1910:

Japan annexed Korea with the signing of the Japan–Korea
Annexation Treaty, beginning a period of Japanese rule of Korea that
lasted until the end of World War II.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan%E2%80%93Korea_Treaty_of_1910>

1989:

The Voyager 2 spacecraft made its closest approach to Neptune
and provided definitive proof of the existence of the planet's rings.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rings_of_Neptune>

2006:

Pulkovo Airlines Flight 612 crashed near the Russian border
over eastern Ukraine, killing all 170 people on board.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulkovo_Aviation_Enterprise_Flight_612>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

eat one's Wheaties:
(US and Canada, idiomatic) To prepare or fortify oneself for an activity
requiring exertion.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eat_one%27s_Wheaties>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

The picture-story involves a joint operation of the brain, the eye and
the heart. The objective of this joint operation is to depict the
content of some event which is in the process of unfolding, and to
communicate impressions. Sometimes a single event can be so rich in
itself and its facets that it is necessary to move all around it in your
search for the solution to the problems it poses — for the world is
movement, and you cannot be stationary in your attitude toward something
that is moving. Sometimes you light upon the picture in seconds; it
might also require hours or days. But there is no standard plan, no
pattern from which to work.
--Henri Cartier-Bresson
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Henri_Cartier-Bresson>

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[Daily article] August 21: USS New Ironsides



USS New Ironsides was a wooden-hulled broadside ironclad built for the
United States Navy during the American Civil War. The ship was
commissioned midway through the war on 21 August 1862. She spent most of
her career blockading the Confederate ports of Charleston, South
Carolina, and Wilmington, North Carolina in 1863–65, and bombarded the
fortifications defending Charleston during the First and Second Battles
of Charleston Harbor. At the end of 1864 and the beginning of 1865 New
Ironsides bombarded the defenses of Wilmington in the First and Second
Battles of Fort Fisher. Although she was struck many times by
Confederate shells, gunfire never significantly damaged the ship or
injured the crew. Her only casualty in combat occurred when she was
struck by a spar torpedo carried by the Confederate torpedo boat David.
Eight crewmen were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions during
the Second Battle of Fort Fisher in 1865. The ship was placed in reserve
after the war but was destroyed by fire in 1866.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_New_Ironsides>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1689:

Jacobite risings: Jacobite clans supporting the deposed king
James VII of Scotland clashed with a government regiment of Covenanters
supporting William of Orange, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral,
Dunkeld, Scotland.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dunkeld>

1858:

The first of seven debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen
A. Douglas, candidates for an Illinois seat in the United States Senate,
was held in Ottawa, Illinois.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lincoln%E2%80%93Douglas_debates>

1942:

World War II: The Imperial Japanese Army lost the Battle of the
Tenaru, the first of its three major land offensives during the
Guadalcanal Campaign.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Tenaru>

1986:

A limnic eruption of a cloud of carbon dioxide from Lake Nyos
in Cameroon killed up to 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock in nearby
villages.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Nyos>

1992:

United States Marshals engaged a fugitive in a shootout at Ruby
Ridge, Idaho, beginning a twelve-day siege.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_Ridge>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

eunoia:
1. (rhetoric) Goodwill towards an audience, either perceived or real; the
perception that the speaker has the audience's interest at heart.
2. (medicine, psychology) A state of normal adult mental health.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/eunoia>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

I have no respect for people who deliberately try to be weird to attract
attention, but if that's who you honestly are, you shouldn't try to
"normalize yourself".
--Alicia Witt
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Alicia_Witt>

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[Daily article] August 20: Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders



The Smith Act trials of Communist Party leaders were a series of trials
held from 1949 to 1958 in which leaders of the Communist Party of the
United States (CPUSA) were accused of violating the Smith Act, a 1940
statute that set penalties for advocating the violent overthrow of the
government. The prosecution argued that the CPUSA's policies promoted
violent revolution; the defendants countered that they advocated a
peaceful transition to socialism, and that the First Amendment's
guarantee of free speech and association protected their membership in a
political party. The first trial in 1949 prosecuted the top leaders of
the party and was featured in the national headlines. After a ten month
trial, all defendants were found guilty and sentenced to five year
prison terms. The judge also sent all five defense attorneys to jail for
contempt of court. Prosecutors then tried over 100 additional CPUSA
officers for violating the Smith Act. Some were tried solely because
they were members of the CPUSA. Many defendants had difficulty finding
attorneys to represent them. Prosecutions came to an end following the
US Supreme Court's 1957 Yates v. United States decision, which held that
defendants could be prosecuted only for their actions, not for their
beliefs. Membership in the CPUSA plummeted due to the trials, and never
recovered.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smith_Act_trials_of_Communist_Party_leaders>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

636:

Rashidun forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid took control of Syria
and Palestine in the Battle of Yarmouk, marking the first great wave of
Muslim conquests after the death of Muhammad.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Yarmouk>

1710:

War of the Spanish Succession: The Spanish-Bourbon army
commanded by the Marquis de Bay was soundly defeated by a multinational
army led by the Austrian commander Guido Starhemberg.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Saragossa>

1882:

The 1812 Overture by Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
was first performed at the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1812_Overture>

1988:

Fires in the United States' Yellowstone National Park destroyed
more than 150,000 acres (610 km2), the single-worst day of the
conflagration.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yellowstone_fires_of_1988>

1989:

The final stage of the O-Bahn Busway in Adelaide, South
Australia, was completed, becoming the world's longest and fastest
guided busway with buses travelling a total of 12 km (7.5 mi) at
maximum speeds up to 100 km/h (62 mph) (example pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O-Bahn_Busway>

2008:

Spanair Flight 5022 crashed just after take off from Madrid's
Barajas Airport, killing 154 people.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanair_Flight_5022>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

disembogue:
1. To come out into the open sea from a river etc.
2. (of a river or waters) To pour out, to debouch; to flow out through a
narrow opening into a larger space.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/disembogue>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

Futurists and common sense concur that a substantial change, worldwide,
in life style and moral guidelines will soon become an absolute
necessity.
--Roger Wolcott Sperry
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Roger_Wolcott_Sperry>

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[Daily article] August 19: Rus' Khaganate



The Rus' Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly
documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th
and early to mid-9th centuries AD). A predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty
and the Kievan Rus', the Rus' Khaganate was a state (or a cluster of
city-states) set up by a people called Rus', who might have been
Norsemen (Vikings, Varangians), in what is today northern Russia. The
region's population at that time was composed of Baltic, Slavic, Finnic,
Turkic and Norse peoples. The region was also a place of operations for
Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants and pirates.
According to contemporaneous sources, the population centers of the
region, which may have included the proto-towns of Holmgard (Novgorod),
Aldeigja (Ladoga), Lyubsha, Alaborg, Sarskoye Gorodishche, and Timerevo,
were under the rule of a monarch or monarchs using the Old Turkic title
Khagan. The Rus' Khaganate period marked the genesis of a distinct Rus'
ethnos, and its successor states would include Kievan Rus' and later
states from which modern Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine evolved.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus%27_Khaganate>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1612:

The "Samlesbury witches", three women from the Lancashire
village of Samlesbury, were accused of practising witchcraft in one of
the most famous witch trials in English history.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samlesbury_witches>

1812:

War of 1812: American Navy frigate USS Constitution defeated
British Royal Navy frigate HMS Guerriere off the coast of Nova Scotia,
Canada, earning her nickname "Old Ironsides".
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Constitution_vs_HMS_Guerriere>

1929:

The highly influential American radio comedy show Amos 'n' Andy
(stars Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll pictured) made its debut.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amos_%27n%27_Andy>

1942:

Second World War: Allied forces suffered over 3,000 casualties
when they unsuccessfully raided the German-occupied port of Dieppe,
France.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dieppe_Raid>

2003:

A Hamas suicide bomber killed 23 people and wounded over 130
others on a crowded public bus in the Shmuel HaNavi quarter in
Jerusalem.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shmuel_HaNavi_bus_bombing>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

clemency:
1. The gentle or kind exercise of power; leniency, mercy; compassion in
judging or punishing.
2. (now rare) Mildness of weather.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/clemency>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

I'm not smart. I try to observe. Millions saw the apple fall but Newton
was the one who asked why.
--Bernard Baruch
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Bernard_Baruch>

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[Daily article] August 18: Stanley Holloway



Stanley Holloway (1890–1982) was an English stage and film actor,
comedian, singer, poet and monologist. He was famous for his comic and
character roles on stage and screen, especially that of Alfred P.
Doolittle in My Fair Lady. He was also renowned for his comic monologues
and songs, which he performed and recorded throughout most of his
70-year career. He had his first major theatre success in Kissing Time
in 1919. In 1921, he joined a concert party, The Co-Optimists, and his
career began to flourish. Characters from his monologues such as Sam
Small, invented by Holloway, and Albert Ramsbottom, created for him by
Marriott Edgar, were absorbed into popular British culture, and Holloway
developed a following for the recordings of his many monologues. At the
outbreak of World War II, Holloway made short propaganda films on behalf
of the British Film Institute and Pathé News and took character parts
in a series of war films including Major Barbara, The Way Ahead, This
Happy Breed and The Way to the Stars. In 1956 he was cast as the
irresponsible Alfred P. Doolittle in My Fair Lady. The role brought him
international fame. In his later years, Holloway appeared in television
series in the US and the UK, toured in revues, and appeared in stage
plays in Britain, Canada, Australia and the US.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanley_Holloway>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1783:

An unusually bright meteor procession blazed across the night
sky over Great Britain.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Meteor_of_August_18,_1783>

1864:

American Civil War: At the Battle of Globe Tavern, Union forces
attempted to sever the Weldon Railroad during the Siege of Petersburg.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Globe_Tavern>

1920:

The Nineteenth Amendment (authors Elizabeth Cady Stanton and
Susan B. Anthony pictured) to the United States Constitution was
ratified, guaranteeing women's suffrage in America.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution>

1966:

Vietnam War: Members from D Company of the 6th Battalion of the
Royal Australian Regiment were surrounded and attacked on all sides by a
much larger Viet Cong unit at the Battle of Long Tan, but held them off
for several hours until reinforcements arrived.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/6th_Battalion,_Royal_Australian_Regiment>

1989:

Leading Colombian presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galán was
assassinated during a public demonstration in the town of Soacha,
Cundinamarca.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Carlos_Gal%C3%A1n>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

social contract:
(philosophy, politics) An implicit agreement or contract among members
of a society that dictates things such as submission of individuals to
rule of law and acceptable conduct.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/social_contract>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

I can't help believing that these things that come from the subconscious
mind have a sort of truth to them. It may not be a scientific truth, but
it's psychological truth.
--Brian Aldiss
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Brian_Aldiss>

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[Daily article] August 17: In Rainbows



In Rainbows is the seventh studio album by the English rock band
Radiohead. It was first released on 10 October 2007 as a digital
download self-released, that customers could order for whatever price
they saw fit, followed by a standard CD release in most countries during
the last week of 2007. The album was released in North America on 1
January 2008 on TBD Records. In Rainbows was Radiohead's first release
after the end of their contract with EMI and the end of the longest gap
between studio albums in their career. Recording with producer Nigel
Godrich, Radiohead worked on In Rainbows for more than two years,
beginning in early 2005. In between recording, the band toured Europe
and North America for three months in mid-2006. The songwriting on In
Rainbows was more personal than that on Radiohead's other albums, with
singer Thom Yorke describing most tracks as his versions of "seduction
songs". Radiohead incorporated a wide variety of musical styles and
instruments on the album, using not only electronic music and string
arrangements, but also pianos, celestes, and the ondes Martenot. The
album earned widespread critical acclaim, and was ranked as one of the
best albums of 2007 by several publications. In 2012, Rolling Stone
magazine ranked the album no. 336 on their updated version of The 500
Greatest Albums of All Time.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_Rainbows>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1807:

Robert Fulton's North River Steamboat, the world's first
commercially successful paddle steamer, went into service.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_River_Steamboat>

1945:

Animal Farm, British author George Orwell's satirical allegory
of Soviet totalitarianism, was first published.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_Farm>

1950:

Korean War: A North Korean Army unit massacred 42 American
prisoners of war so that they would not slow the North Koreans down
(memorial pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hill_303_massacre>

1959:

Kind of Blue by Miles Davis, one of the best selling and most
critically acclaimed jazz recordings of all time, was released.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kind_of_Blue>

1998:

U.S. President Bill Clinton admitted in taped testimony that he
had an "improper physical relationship" with White House intern Monica
Lewinsky.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lewinsky_scandal>

2009:

A turbine at Sayano–Shushenskaya Dam in Khakassia, Russia,
broke apart violently, flooding the power station, causing widespread
power failures, and killing 75 people.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2009_Sayano-Shushenskaya_hydro_accident>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

remuneration:
1. Something given in exchange for goods or services rendered.
2. A payment for work done; wages, salary, emolument.
3. A recompense for a loss; compensation.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/remuneration>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

The Iron Man came to the top of the cliff. How far had he walked? Nobody
knows. Where did he come from? Nobody knows. How was he made? Nobody
knows. Taller than a house the Iron Man stood at the top of the cliff,
at the very brink, in the darkness.
--Ted Hughes
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Ted_Hughes>

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August 16: José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco



José Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco (1819–1880) was a politician,
monarchist, diplomat, teacher and journalist of the Empire of Brazil. In
1871, Rio Branco became the President of the Council of Ministers (Prime
Minister) for the first time. He would become the Council's longest-
serving president, and his cabinet the second longest, in Brazilian
history. His government was marked by a time of economic prosperity and
the enactment of several necessary reforms—though they proved to be
seriously flawed. The most important of these initiatives was the Law of
Free Birth, which granted freeborn status to children born to slave
women. Having become one of the main leaders of the Conservative Party,
the passage of this law increased Rio Branco's popularity. However, his
government was plagued by a long crisis with the Catholic Church that
had resulted from the expulsion of Freemasons from its lay brotherhoods.
After more than four years heading the Cabinet, Rio Branco resigned in
1875. Following a long vacation in Europe, his health swiftly declined
and he was diagnosed with oral cancer. Rio Branco died in 1880 and was
widely mourned throughout the country. He is regarded by most historians
as one of Brazil's greatest statesmen.
Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Paranhos,_Viscount_of_Rio_Branco>
_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:
1777:
American Revolutionary War: The Americans, led by General John
Stark, routed British and Brunswick troops under Friedrich Baum at the
Battle of Bennington in Walloomsac, New York.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bennington>
1891:
The Basilica of San Sebastian in Manila, the only all-steel
church in Asia, was officially consecrated.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica_of_San_Sebastian,_Manila>
1896:
A group led by Skookum Jim Mason discovered gold near Dawson
City, Yukon, Canada, setting off the Klondike Gold Rush.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klondike_Gold_Rush>
1900:
Second Boer War: A 10,000-strong column of soldiers left by
Lord Kitchener broke a 13-day siege of a small garrison.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Elands_River_(1900)>
1987:
Northwest Airlines Flight 255 crashed after takeoff in Detroit,
Michigan, US, killing all of the crew and passengers except one.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Airlines_Flight_255>
2009:
Y. E. Yang won the 2009 PGA Championship to become the first
Asian-born golfer to win a men's major golf championship.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yang_Yong-eun>
_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:
nowise:
(In) no way, (in) no manner, definitely not.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/nowise>
___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:
Rebellion must have an unassailable base, something guarded not merely
from attack, but from the fear of it:
--T. E. Lawrence
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/T._E._Lawrence>
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[Daily article] August 15: Manhunter (film)



Manhunter is a 1986 film based on Thomas Harris's novel Red Dragon.
Written and directed by Michael Mann (pictured), it stars William
Petersen as offender profiler Will Graham, Tom Noonan as serial killer
Francis Dollarhyde—"The Tooth Fairy"—and features Brian Cox as
Hannibal Lecktor. Manhunter focuses on the forensic work carried out by
the FBI to track down the killer and shows the long-term effects that
cases like this have on Graham, highlighting the similarities between
him and his quarry. The film features heavily stylized use of color to
convey this sense of duality, and the nature of the characters'
similarity has been explored in academic readings of the film. Opening
to mixed reviews, Manhunter fared poorly at the box office at the time
of its release, making only $8.6 million in the United States. However,
it has been reappraised in more recent reviews and now enjoys a more
favorable reception, as both the acting and the stylized visuals have
been appreciated better in later years. Its resurgent popularity has
seen it labelled as a cult film.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhunter_(film)>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

718:

Forces of the Umayyad Caliphate abandoned their year-long siege
of Constantinople, causing the caliphate to give up its goal of
conquering the Byzantine Empire.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Constantinople_(717%E2%80%93718)>

1511:

Afonso de Albuquerque captured the city of Malacca, giving
Portugal control over the Strait of Malacca, through which all sea-going
trade between China and India was concentrated.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capture_of_Malacca_(1511)>

1812:

War of 1812: Potawatomi warriors destroyed the United States
Army's Fort Dearborn in what is now Chicago, Illinois, and captured the
survivors.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Fort_Dearborn>

1942:

World War II: The tanker SS Ohio reached Malta, as part of an
operation to deliver much needed supplies during the Siege of Malta.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Pedestal>

1963:

President Fulbert Youlou was overthrown in the Republic of
Congo, after a three-day uprising in the capital.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trois_Glorieuses_(1963)>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

avail:
1. (transitive, often reflexive) To turn to the advantage of.
2. (transitive) To be of service to.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/avail>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

The supreme truths are neither the rigid conclusions of logical
reasoning nor the affirmations of credal statement, but fruits of the
soul's inner experience. Intellectual truth is only one of the doors to
the outer precincts of the temple. And since intellectual truth turned
towards the Infinite must be in its very nature many-sided and not
narrowly one, the most varying intellectual beliefs can be equally true
because they mirror different facets of the Infinite. However separated
by intellectual distance, they still form so many side-entrances which
admit the mind to some faint ray from a supreme Light. There are no true
and false religions, but rather all religions are true in their own way
and degree. Each is one of the thousand paths to the One Eternal.
--Sri Aurobindo
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Sri_Aurobindo>

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[Daily article] August 14: DNA nanotechnology



DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic
acid structures for technological uses. In this field, nucleic acids
such as DNA are used as non-biological engineering materials for
nanotechnology rather than as the carriers of genetic information in
living cells. Researchers in the field have created static structures
such as crystal lattices, nanotubes, polyhedra, and arbitrarily shaped
DNA origami; as well as functional structures including molecular
machines and DNA computers. The conceptual foundation for DNA
nanotechnology was first laid out in the early 1980s, and the field
began to attract widespread interest in the mid-2000s. The field is
beginning to be used as a tool to solve basic science problems in
structural biology and biophysics, such as protein structure
determination, and potential real-world applications in nanomedicine and
molecular scale electronics are under development.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_nanotechnology>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1842:

American Indian Wars: American general William J. Worth
declared the Second Seminole War to be over.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Seminole_War>

1888:

A recording of English composer Arthur Sullivan's The Lost
Chord (audio clip right), one of the first recordings of music ever
made, was played during a press conference introducing Thomas Edison's
phonograph in London.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lost_Chord>

1994:

International fugitive Carlos the Jackal, wanted for a number
of terrorist attacks in Europe, was handed over to French agents by
Sudanese officials.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_the_Jackal>

2005:

Helios Airways Flight 522 crashed into a mountain north of
Marathon and Varnava, Greece, killing all 121 on board.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helios_Airways_Flight_522>

2010:

The inaugural Youth Olympic Games opened in Singapore for
athletes between 14 and 18 years old.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Youth_Olympic_Games>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

teenybopper:
A person, especially a female, in her early teens who follows popular
clothing fashions, music trends, and the like.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/teenybopper>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

Come! Let us lay a lance in rest, And tilt at windmills under a wild
sky! For who would live so petty and unblest That dare not tilt at
something ere he die; Rather than, screened by safe majority, Preserve
his little life to little end, And never raise a rebel cry!
--John Galsworthy
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/John_Galsworthy>

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[Daily article] August 13: Gray mouse lemur



The gray mouse lemur is a small lemur, a type of strepsirrhine primate,
found only on the island of Madagascar. Nearly indistinguishable from
each other by appearance, the gray mouse lemur and all other mouse
lemurs are considered cryptic species. For this reason, the gray mouse
lemur was considered the only mouse lemur species for decades until more
recent studies began to distinguish between the species. Like all mouse
lemurs, this species is nocturnal and arboreal. It is very active, and
although it forages alone, groups of males and females will form
sleeping groups and share tree holes during the day. It exhibits a form
of dormancy called torpor during the cool, dry winter months, and in
some cases undergoes seasonal torpor (or hibernation), which is unusual
for primates. Its diet consists primarily of fruit, insects, flowers,
and nectar. In the wild, its natural predators include owls, snakes, and
endemic mammalian predators. Predation pressure is higher for this
species than among any other primate species, with one out of four
individuals taken by a predator each year. This is counterbalanced by
its high reproductive rate. Although threatened by deforestation,
habitat degradation, and live capture for the pet trade, it is
considered one of Madagascar's most abundant small native mammals.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gray_mouse_lemur>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1521:

After an extended siege, forces led by Spanish conquistador
Hernán Cortés captured Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc and conquered the Aztec
capital of Tenochtitlan.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_of_Tenochtitlan>

1868:

A major earthquake near Arica, Peru, caused an estimated 25,000
casualties, and the subsequent tsunami caused considerable damage as far
away as Hawaii and New Zealand.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1868_Arica_earthquake>

1906:

The all black infantrymen of the U.S. Army's 25th Infantry
Regiment were accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white
police officer in Brownsville, Texas, despite exculpatory evidence; all
were later dishonorably discharged.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brownsville_Affair>

2004:

Hurricane Charley struck the U.S. state of Florida (damage
pictured), just 22 hours after Tropical Storm Bonnie inflicted its own
damage to the state.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Charley>

2010:

Canadian authorities boarded the MV Sun Sea and placed the 492
Sri Lankan Tamil refugees on board into detention, drawing criticism
from international civil rights groups.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MV_Sun_Sea_incident>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

erratic:
(geology) A rock moved from one location to another, usually by a
glacier.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/erratic>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

I believe in the supreme excellence of righteousness; I believe that the
law of righteousness will triumph in the universe over all evil; I
believe that in the attempt to fulfil the law of righteousness, however
imperfect it must remain, are to be found the inspiration, the
consolation, and the sanctification of human existence.
--Felix Adler
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Felix_Adler>

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[Daily article] August 12: Olympic Games



The Olympic Games are considered to be the world's foremost sports
competition and more than 200 nations participate. The Games are held
biennially, with Summer and Winter Olympic Games alternating, so that
each of these is held every four years. Originally, the ancient Olympic
Games were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th
century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic
Committee (IOC) in 1894, which is still the governing body of the games.
The 20th and 21st centuries have seen several changes to the games, such
as the creation of the Winter Games for ice and winter sports, the
Paralympic Games for athletes with a physical disability, and the Youth
Olympic Games. The Olympics have shifted away from the pure amateurism
envisioned by Coubertin to allow participation of professional athletes.
The growing importance of the mass media has created issues around
corporate sponsorship and commercialization of the Games. World Wars led
to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Games. Large boycotts
during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Games>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

30 BC:

Cleopatra VII Philopator, the last ruler of the Egyptian
Ptolemaic dynasty, committed suicide, allegedly by means of an asp bite.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra_VII>

1121:

Forces led by David the Builder decisively won the Battle of
Didgori, driving Ilghazi and the Seljuk Turks out of Georgia.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Didgori>

1877:

American astronomer Asaph Hall discovered Deimos, the smaller
of the two moons of Mars.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deimos_(moon)>

1944:

After a week of indiscriminate killing of civilians in Wola,
Warsaw, Poland, SS General Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski ordered that any
remaining Poles be sent to labour or concentration camps.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wola_massacre>

1950:

Korean War: Members of the North Korean People's Army executed
75 captured U.S. Army prisoners of war.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloody_Gulch_massacre>

1990:

American paleontologist Sue Hendrickson found the most complete
skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus ever discovered near Faith, South Dakota,
US.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sue_(dinosaur)>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

repechage:
(sports) A heat (as in rowing or fencing) in which the best competitors
who have lost in a previous round compete for a place or places yet left
in the next round.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/repechage>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

The important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win, but to take
part; the important thing in Life is not triumph, but the struggle; the
essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well. To
spread these principles is to build up a strong and more valiant and,
above all, more scrupulous and more generous humanity.
--Pierre de Coubertin
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Coubertin>

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[Daily article] August 11: South Side, Chicago



The South Side is a major part of the City of Chicago. Regions of the
city, referred to as sides, are divided by the Chicago River and its
branches. The South Side of Chicago was originally defined as all of the
city south of the main branch of the Chicago River, but it now excludes
the Loop. The South Side has a varied ethnic composition, and it has
great disparity in income and other demographic measures. The South Side
covers 60% of the city's land area, with a higher ratio of single-family
homes and larger sections zoned for industry than the rest of the city.
Neighborhoods such as Armour Square, Back of the Yards, Bridgeport, and
Pullman tend to be composed of more blue collar residents, while Hyde
Park, the Jackson Park Highlands District, Kenwood, and Beverly tend to
have middle, upper-middle class, and affluent residents. The South Side
boasts a broad array of cultural and social offerings, such as
professional sports teams, landmark buildings, nationally renowned
museums, elite educational institutions, world class medical
institutions, and major parts of the city's elaborate parks system.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Side,_Chicago>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

3114 BC:

The epoch of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar, a non-
repeating, vigesimal calendar used by the Maya civilization and several
other Mesoamerican cultures, occurred.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesoamerican_Long_Count_calendar>

106:

The region of Dacia, comprising regions of modern Romania,
became a province of the Roman Empire.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Dacia>

1492:

The first papal conclave held in the Sistine Chapel elected
Roderic Borja as Pope Alexander VI to succeed Pope Innocent VIII.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_conclave,_1492>

1952:

King Talal of Jordan abdicated due to health reasons and was
succeeded by his eldest son Hussein (pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hussein_of_Jordan>

1965:

Violent race riots began in Watts, Los Angeles, California,
lasting for six days and leaving 34 people dead and 1,032 others
injured.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watts_Riots>

1973:

At a party in the recreation room of a New York City apartment
building, DJ Kool Herc began rapping during an extended break, laying
the foundation for hip-hop music.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DJ_Kool_Herc>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

bevy:
1. A group of animals, in particular quails.
2. A large group or collection.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/bevy>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Lo! We revealed it on
the Night of Predestination. Ah, what will convey unto thee what the
Night of Power is! The Night of Power is better than a thousand months.
The angels and the Spirit descend therein, by the permission of their
Lord, with all decrees. (The night is) Peace until the rising of the
dawn. as translated by
--M. M. Pickthall
<https://en.wikiquote.org//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marmaduke_Pickthall>

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[Daily article] August 10: Gregorian mission



The Gregorian mission was the missionary endeavour sent by Pope Gregory
I (1620s portrait pictured) to the Anglo-Saxons in 596 AD. Headed by
Augustine of Canterbury, its goal was to convert the Anglo-Saxons to
Christianity. Along with Irish and Frankish missionaries, they converted
Britain and helped influence the Hiberno-Scottish missionaries on the
continent. In the late 6th century, Pope Gregory sent a group of
missionaries to Kent to convert Æthelberht, King of Kent, whose wife,
Bertha, was a Frankish princess and practising Christian. Augustine was
the prior of Gregory's own monastery in Rome, and Gregory prepared the
way for the mission by soliciting aid from the Frankish rulers along
Augustine's route. In 597, the forty missionaries arrived in Kent and
were permitted by Æthelberht to preach freely in his capital of
Canterbury. Soon the missionaries wrote to Gregory, telling him of their
success and that conversions were taking place. A second group of monks
and clergy was dispatched in 601, bearing books and other items for the
new foundation. The exact date of Æthelberht's conversion is unknown,
but it occurred before 601. Before Æthelberht's death in 616, a number
of other bishoprics had been established. Although the missionaries
could not remain in all of the places they had evangelised, by the time
the last of them died in 653, they had established Christianity in Kent
and the surrounding countryside and contributed a Roman tradition to the
practice of Christianity in Britain.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregorian_mission>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1512:

War of the League of Cambrai: England and a combined Franco-
Breton fleet engaged in the Battle of Saint-Mathieu, during which an
explosion destroyed each navy's most powerful ship (pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Saint-Mathieu>

1755:

The first wave of the Expulsion of the Acadians from the
present-day Canadian Maritime provinces by the British began with the
Bay of Fundy Campaign at Chignecto.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bay_of_Fundy_Campaign_(1755)>

1793:

The Louvre, the most visited art museum in the world,
officially opened with an exhibition of 537 paintings.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mus%C3%A9e_du_Louvre>

1904:

Russo-Japanese War: The first major confrontation between
modern steel battleship fleets took place in the Battle of the Yellow
Sea.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Yellow_Sea>

1944:

The German Army Detachment "Narwa" prevented the Soviet
Leningrad Front from capturing the strategically important Narva Isthmus
in Estonia.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tannenberg_Line>

1981:

The severed head of kidnapped six-year-old Adam Walsh was found
in a canal in Vero Beach, Florida, prompting his father John to become
an advocate for victims' rights, helping to spur the formation of the
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder_of_Adam_Walsh>

1990:

NASA's Magellan space probe reached Venus, fifteen months after
its launch.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magellan_(spacecraft)>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

leeward:
Away from the direction from which the wind is blowing. Downwind.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/leeward>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

Being a politician is a poor profession. Being a public servant is a
noble one.
--Herbert Hoover
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover>

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[Daily article] August 9: Western Ganga Dynasty



The Western Ganga Dynasty was an important ruling dynasty of ancient
Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE. They are
known as Western Gangas to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas who
in later centuries ruled over modern Orissa. Though territorially a
small kingdom, the Western Ganga contribution to polity, culture and
literature of the modern south Karnataka region is considered important.
The Western Ganga kings showed benevolent tolerance to all faiths but
are most famous for their patronage towards Jainism resulting in the
construction of monuments in places such as Shravanabelagola and
Kambadahalli. The kings of this dynasty encouraged the fine arts due to
which literature in Kannada and Sanskrit flourished. Chavundaraya's
writing, Chavundaraya Purana of 978 CE, is an important work in Kannada
prose. Many classics were written on various subjects ranging from
religion to elephant management.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Ganga_Dynasty>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1173:

The construction of a campanile, which would eventually become
the Leaning Tower of Pisa, began.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa>

1862:

American Civil War: After nearly being driven from the field in
the early part of the Battle of Cedar Mountain, Confederate troops
counterattacked and achieved a victory.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Cedar_Mountain>

1945:

World War II: USAAF bomber Bockscar dropped an atomic bomb
named "Fat Man", devastating Nagasaki, Japan (mushroom cloud pictured).
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat_Man>

1965:

Malaysia expelled the state of Singapore from its federation
due to heated ideological conflict between their respective ruling
parties.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singapore>

1988:

Wayne Gretzky was traded from the Edmonton Oilers to the Los
Angeles Kings in one of the most controversial player transactions in
ice hockey history.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayne_Gretzky>

2006:

British police arrested 24 people for conspiring to detonate
liquid explosives carried on board at least 10 airliners travelling from
the United Kingdom to the United States and Canada.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2006_transatlantic_aircraft_plot>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

pankration:
An Ancient Greek martial art combining aspects of boxing and wrestling,
introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pankration>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

This darkness will not last forever. There will some day come a Fifth of
November — or another date, it doesn't matter — when fires will burn
in a chain of brightness from Land's End to John O' Groats. The children
will dance and leap about them as they did in the times before. They
will take each other by the hand and watch the rockets breaking, and
afterwards they will go home singing to the houses full of light...
--P. L. Travers
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/P._L._Travers>

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[Daily article] August 8: CenturyLink Field



CenturyLink Field is a multi-purpose stadium in Seattle, Washington,
United States. The stadium was designed for both American football and
soccer. It serves as the home field for the Seattle Seahawks of the
National Football League (NFL) and Seattle Sounders FC of Major League
Soccer (MLS). Sounders FC have hosted and won two U.S. Open Cup
championship matches at CenturyLink in 2010 and 2011, setting an
attendance record for the tournament final each time. The venue also
hosts concerts, trade shows, and consumer shows along with sporting
events. Located within a mile (1.6 km) of Seattle's central business
district, it is accessible by multiple freeways and forms of mass
transit. It was built between 2000 and 2002 after voters approved
funding for the construction in a statewide election. This vote created
the Washington State Public Stadium Authority to oversee public
ownership of the venue. CenturyLink Field is a modern facility with
views of the skyline of Downtown Seattle and can seat 67,000 people.

Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CenturyLink_Field>

_______________________________
Today's selected anniversaries:

1786:

Michel-Gabriel Paccard and Jacques Balmat completed the first
recorded ascent of Mont Blanc in the Alps, an act considered to be the
birth of modern mountaineering.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mont_Blanc>

1942:

Following a speech by Mohandas K. Gandhi, the All India
Congress Committee passed the Quit India Resolution, calling for the
immediate independence of India from the United Kingdom.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quit_India_Movement>

1969:

At a zebra crossing in London, photographer Iain Macmillan took
the photo that was used for the cover of the Beatles album Abbey Road,
one of the most famous album covers in recording history.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbey_Road>

1988:

The 8888 Uprising, a series of marches, demonstrations,
protests, and riots against the one-party state of the Burma Socialist
Programme Party in Burma, began.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8888_Uprising>

2010:

A massive mudslide of 1.8 million cubic metres (2,400,000
cu yd) of mud and rocks in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China,
killed 1,471 people.
<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2010_Gansu_mudslide>

_____________________________
Wiktionary's word of the day:

shuttlecock:
(badminton) A lightweight object that is conical in shape with a cork or
rubber-covered nose, used in badminton as a ball is used in other
racquet games; a birdie.
<https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/shuttlecock>

___________________________
Wikiquote quote of the day:

We have to be reminded over and over again that Nature is full of
paradoxes.
--Henry Fairfield Osborn
<https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Henry_Fairfield_Osborn>

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